Traumatic Brain Injuries - TBI
Types of Brain Injuries
A Brain Injury is damage to the brain that
results in a loss of function such as
mobility or feeling.
Injuries can result from a closed head
injury or a penetrating head injury.
A closed injury occurs when the head
suddenly and violently hits an object but
the object does not break through the skull.
A penetrating injury occurs when an object
pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.
As the first line of defense, the skull is
particularly vulnerable to injury. Skull
fractures occur when the bone of the skull
cracks or breaks. A depressed skull fracture
occurs when pieces of the broken skull press
into the tissue of the brain. A penetrating
skull fracture occurs when something pierces
the skull, such as a bullet, leaving a
distinct and localized injury to brain
tissue. Skull fractures can cause cerebral
Anoxia: Another insult to the brain
that can cause injury is anoxia. Anoxia is a
condition in which there is an absence of
oxygen supply to an organ's tissues, even if
there is adequate blood flow to the tissue.
Hypoxia refers to a decrease in oxygen
supply rather than a complete absence of
oxygen, and ischemia is inadequate blood
supply, as is seen in cases in which the
brain swells. In any of these cases, without
adequate oxygen, a biochemical cascade
called the ischemic cascade is unleashed,
and the cells of the brain can die within
several minutes. This type of injury is
often seen in near-drowning victims, in
heart attack patients, or in people who
suffer significant blood loss from other
injuries that decrease blood flow to the